The DNA test results came in, clearly the father. There was no question about it. I was really interested to see how they send you the results. They also word everything in crazy ways like "The results of the paternity test are consistant with the alleged father being the biological father of Hannah" and "The alleged father, DB is not to be excluded as the biological father of Hannah".
Each person’s DNA contains two copies of these markers—one copy inherited from the father and one from the mother. Within a population, the markers at each person’s DNA location could differ in length and sometimes sequence, depending on the markers inherited from the parents.
The combination of marker sizes found in each person makes up his/her unique genetic profile. When determining the relationship between two individuals, their genetic profiles are compared to see if they share the same inheritance patterns at a statistically conclusive rate.
For example, the following sample report from this commercial DNA paternity testing laboratory Universal Genetics signifies how relatedness between parents and child is identified on those special markers:
|DNA Marker||Mother||Child||Alleged father|
|D21S11||28, 30||28, 31||29, 31|
|D7S820||9, 10||10, 11||11, 12|
|TH01||14, 15||14, 16||15, 16|
|D13S317||7, 8||7, 9||8, 9|
|D19S433||14, 16.2||14, 15||15, 17|
The partial results indicate that the child and the alleged father’s DNA match among these five markers. The complete test results show this correlation on 16 markers between the child and the tested man to draw a conclusion of whether or not the man is the biological father.
Scientifically, each marker is assigned with a Paternity Index (PI), which is a statistical measure of how powerfully a match at a particular marker indicates paternity. The PI of each marker is multiplied with each other to generate the Combined Paternity Index (CPI), which indicates the overall probability of an individual being the biological father of the tested child relative to any random man from the entire population of the same race. The CPI is then converted into a Probability of Paternity showing the degree of relatedness between the alleged father and child.
The DNA test report in other family relationship tests, such as grandparentage and siblingship tests, is similar to a paternity test report. Instead of the Combined Paternity Index, a different value, such as a Siblingship Index, is reported.
The report shows the genetic profiles of each tested person. If there are markers shared among the tested individuals, the probability of biological relationship is calculated to determine how likely the tested individuals share the same markers due to a blood relationship.